Geology Museum of Xi'an University of Science and Technology grows from the Geological specimen exhibition room of the former private Jiaozuo College of Engineering which was set up in 1909. After the outbreak of the anti-Japanese war, Private Jiaozuo college of Engineering and other three engineering colleges from Beiyang University, Beiping University and Northeast University moved to Xi'an city and merged into a new national college—Northwest Engineering College in 1938. The Geological specimen room was transferred to the new-established Geological Department of Xi'an Jiaotong University. In 1957, Xi'an Mining Institute, which later changed to Xi'an University of science and Technology, was established based on the Geological Department and Mining Department of Jiaotong University. To date, the Museum has experienced about 100 year's development.
The treasure of the Museum is an only set of well-preserved geological specimens of China, which was imported from abroad before the Second World War.
Thanks to the persistent efforts and international academic exchanges of teaches and students of several generations of the geological department, the specimen collection of the museum is gradually becoming complete in kinds and optimized in quality. At present the museum houses 4000 pieces of specimens, including 1115 pieces imported from overseas. The collection of specimen in the museum ranks first in China in the systematization, integrity and quality of geological specimen. In 2002, the geological specimens were moved to the new-built Geology Museum that is graceful and spacious. Now the New Museum stands in the Lintong Campus of Xi'an University of Science and Technology.
The museum is divided into 4 exhibition sections: Paleontology, Mineralogy, minerals rocks and mineral products, which present a systematic and complete exhibition of the specimens of the historical development of the earth, the science of the earth substance, and economic geology. It houses the only best-preserved set of the geological specimens of China which were imported from 38 countries before the Second World war.
Paleontology Exhibition Section:
The section houses 700 specimens and displays 10 kinds of paleontology specimens and 9 groups of Paleobotany specimens distributed in typical coal mines in China. The specimens stored in the section overall reflect the evolution process of life and ecological environment in the earth. The distinctive specimen in the section is the Bow Graptolite that boasts the Cytograptus fossil discovered in Ziyang, Shaanxi province by Prof. Deng Bao of the university, which filled in the fossil blinks of Chinese Silurian Stratum Division for the first time. For which, the International Conference of Stratigraphy in 1990 included the stratal configuration of the Silurian Stratum of Zhiyan county in where the Cyrtograptus fossil was discovered into the international Stratigraphic Cross-section. Prof. Yan Jiaqi of the university also discovered quite a lot of old stone tools, filling in the cultural blinks of old Stone Age in the south areas of Qinling Mountain and causing the attention of archeologists at home and abroad. “People's Daily” and “Shaanxi Daily” respectively reported the discovery. Moreover, the discovery and naming of fossils for many palae-animals, new categories of the palae-plants by the Prof. Wu Congzhang and Deng Sicheng are also matters of great academic significance in the fields of palaeozoology and Stratigraphy.
Mineralogy Exhibition Section:
The section stored 5 kinds and 1300 specimens, including natural mineral crystals, mineral physical property and natural elements, halide, sulphide, oxide and hydroxide, acid salt with oxide (sulphate, carbnate and silicate etc.). All 300-plus kinds of specimens in the section come from about 40 states but more than 50 percent are from China. Specimens displayed are complete in system and with vivid features. The full-grow natural mineral crystals are typical and rare in nature. Late Academician Peng Zhizhong, prestigious crystal mineralogist and Prof. Pan Zhaolu, well-known mineralogist had many times visited the section. Many photos of the specimen are illustrated in the series monograph of “Systematical Mineralogy” written by Prof. Wang Pu and Prof. Pan Zhaolu. Geologists from Netherlands, the United State Germany, Japan, Poland Rusiao Canada and U.K many times visited the museum. No one but greatly admired these classic specimens and Chinese geologists' great contribution to the world geological research.
Minerals Rocks Exhibition Section:
There are 1200 specimens in the section, which is classified into four parts: Magmatic Rock, Metamorphic Rock, and Sedimentary. In Magmatic Rock part, displayed specimens of Intrusive rock (plutonic rock, hypabyssal Rock and gangue rock) and Volcanic rock are arranged in acid rocks, moderate acid rocks, ground forms, ultrabasic rocks and alkaline rocks in light of the sort of the specimens. In Metamorphic Rock part, various kinds of specimens of Metamorphic Rock such as gneiss, schist phyllite, and slate are displayed in accordance with their color descent from dark to light. In Sedimentary part, there are two kinds of typical specimens on displaying, including different sorts of very typical structural specimens, fragmental rocks and chemical rocks (siliceous rocks, calcium rocks and evaporation rocks).
Mineral Products Section
This section displays 300 specimens of metal, nonmetal and energy etc. related to mineral resources. Among them, 214 specimens were imported from abroad. The specimens here are almost containing all kinds of mineral specimens developed and utilized by human. Coal specimens displayed include peat, brown coal, all kinds of bituminous coal and anthracite. The most attractive specimen is a piece of good quality coal with extra-low ash, phosphorus and extra-high calorie power produced in third biggest coal mine in the world--Jurassic coal mine of the North part of Shaanxi province.
Palace of Science
Geology Museum has not only been playing a very important role in the education of undergraduate and graduate as well as scientific research, but also serving as a window open to the outside world in the international exchanges of the university. Delegations and Geologists from more than 10 countries have respectively visited the Museum. The guests from Netherlands, Poland also donated their valuable specimen collections to the museum in international academic exchanges. Quite a bit of domestic experts, professors and leaders from high organs pay the museum a visit, aiming at exchange, studying every year. With the increasing popularization of the Geo-science and strengthening of the quality education in China, nowadays more and more of students from colleges, high schools and primary schools come to visit to the Museum and learn geological knowledge.
The museum has played a role of educating young generations in patriotism and quality-oriented knowledge. Can visitors not only learn the knowledge on structure of the earth, evolution of organism, sorts of mineral resources in the earth's crust and its function in national economic building in the museum, but also comprehend in depth the meanings of “ We only own one earth”. The resources on the earth are not endless. So, we should cherish the earth, protect the earth and keep ecological balance so as to realizing the continuous improvement of our living quality and environment and sustainable development of the human society.